In early 1960, Eisenhower expressed support for a complete ban on testing, which depended on proper monitoring of underground testing. [84] On February 11, 1960, Wadsworth announced a new U.S. proposal that only tests deemed verifiable by the Geneva system would be banned, including all atmospheric, submarine, and space tests in the coverage area. Underground trials, with a measurement greater than 4.75 on the Richter scale, would also be banned, subject to revision, as research for discovery continues. Following the Compromise on Macmillan Quotas, the United States proposed that each nuclear state be subject to about twenty on-site inspections per year (the exact number is based on the frequency of seismic events). [85] 2. April 1954: Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru proposes a “status quo agreement” for nuclear testing, which is then forwarded to the United Nations Disarmament Commission. Albert Einstein and Pope Pius XII later called for an end to nuclear testing. These nuclear test explosions have been used to develop new designs of nuclear warheads and demonstrate the nuclear capabilities of the world`s nuclear states.

Testing, especially atmospheric detonations, has had a negative impact on the lives and health of millions of people around the world. In response, ordinary citizens, scientists, legislators and heads of government have made efforts for several decades to implement a global ban on nuclear testing, the Nuclear Waste Treatment Control Test (CTBT), which can do the trick globally verifiable. Currently, the treaty has 184 signatories and 168 ratifications, while it will still not enter into force, until eight key states, including the United States, ratify it. 1981: Fear of nuclear war intensifies, as the Reagan administration begins with massive nuclear rearmament and East-West tensions escalate. A December poll by NBC/Associated Press found that 76 percent of the American public believes a nuclear war is “likely” within a few years. Shocked by the fact that the world had approached thermonuclear war, Khrushchev offered to ease tensions with the United States. [134] In a letter to President Kennedy on October 11, 1962, Kurshchev outlined a series of courageous initiatives to prevent the possibility of nuclear war, including the proposal for a non-aggression treaty between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Warsaw Pact, or even the dissolution of these military blocs, a treaty to end all nuclear tests and even eliminate all nuclear weapons. Resolve the burning issue of Germany from East and West, formally accepting the existence of West and East Germany and the recognition by the United States of the government of mainland China.

The letter called for counter-proposals and further investigations into these and other issues through peaceful negotiations. Khrushchev invited Norman Cousins, editor of a major American magazine and anti-nuclear activist, to serve as a liaison with President Kennedy, and cousins met khrushchev for four hours in December 1962. [135] Kennedy`s reaction to Khrushchev`s proposals was lukewarm, but Kennedy told his cousins that he felt limited in investigating these issues because of pressure from extremists in the U.S. national security apparatus. . . .